В 1888 году курсы были закрыты
The courses were closed (down) in 1888.
the educational courses were closed in 1888
In 1888, the courses were terminated.
terminated - преостановлены
The courses were shut down in 1888 - Курсы были закрыты в 1888
There is no difference between "closed (down)" and "shut down".
нет. здесь как раз именно закрыты навсегда